jwt philosophy For CSS A little girl stood looking out. the window is very thoughtful. Presently, she turned and said
“Mother, what I don’t understand is how there came to be any world.” With this reflection, she
became a philosopher.
Most children just take the world for granted; most men and women do also. However, some children and some grown-ups are very thoughtful and reflective; they wonder what the world is, how it came to be, and what it is made of. and what it is for. When their wonder begins to be a serious and systematic inquiry.
they are philosophers. Plato said that philosophy begins in wonder. jwt philosophy For CSS The Greeks were devoted to philosophy, but as compared with us they were native and childlike in their outlook on the world, and free from disturbing doubts, but they were much given to wonder, and their wonder soon became serious and thoughtful jwt philosophy For CSS.
Doubt and Perplexity
However, although philosophy among the ancients began in wonder, in modern times it usually
begins in doubt. In our own difficult post-war period, doubt has become a serious and disturbing human ailment.
“There never was a time when so many people were as uncertain about so many things as at having been the words of a distinguished speaker at Stanford University. Many of us are uncertain about the best form of government, about the best economic or social system, what things are right and what things are wrong, about the existence of God, and about the soul and its destiny.
We are uncertain whether people are better behaved today than they were in the times of our fathers, or whether they were better than now.
Old Beliefs and Confusion Formerly we were all sure that democracy is the best form of government for all civilized people, and that form of social organization is best which provides a full measure of individual freedom and initiative.
We believed that right and wrong were what our parents taught us. jwt philosophy For CSS We believed that God exists because of the authority of the Church or the Bible. Now our confidence in all these old beliefs is shaken, and there is much doubt and confusion jwt philosophy For CSS.
Authority of Science
However, we are told that the situation is even worse than this. There might be doubt about the
puppies of morals or theology, or about economic and social systems and the theory of
government, but there is still one authority that rests firmly upon established laws, about which there could be no doubt whatever – and that authority is science.
jwt philosophy For CSSNow we begin to hear that the old foundations of science itself are crumbling jwt philosophy For CSS.
Scientists of the Present World
At the present time, technical scientists find themselves with equations that they are unable to interpret, and with theories that they cannot make intelligible without statements of a philosophical character that certain of their colleagues do not accept.
Stated bluntly, this means that scientists do not fully understand their own discoveries because the first principles, which make all technical discoveries intelligible, are in a state of flux. This is the reason why physicists like Erdington, Einstein, and Whitehead, physiologists like Driesch, Haldane, and Henderson, and pure mathematicians like Brouwer, Hilbert, and Weyl, are writing philosophy. jwt philosophy For CSS A new spirit and temper are abroad in the world.
The old frame and background, which contained the contents of the scientist’s picture of nature, have dissolved in his hands, and he is being forced to shift his attention from the constituent details to the general structure, in order to prevent science from being overwhelmed by its discoveries, and destroyed by its very success. A change, which strikes the very foundation of things. is upon us jwt philosophy For CSS.
Age of Transition
In a situation like this, what are we to do? I think there is one thing, which we shall not do – and that is to assume the attitude either of the skeptic or the cynic. ‘These problems are going to be
solved -‘ and some of them soon.
We happen to live in an age of transition when many sciences and many old beliefs are in a state of flux. jwt philosophy For CSS In such a transitional period, there is both danger and promise – and to be living in such a period is, at any rate for the young, almost an adventure. There are plenty of things to think about – and there is no greater joy than in this exercise of thought. There are many things to be thought through, and philosophy may be defined as the art of thinking things through – or, if you prefer, it is the habit of trying to think things through jwt philosophy For CSS.
Disposition of a Philosopher
However, just what is involved in this? It involves thinking logically about the subject at hand – as well as systematically and persistently.
We must define very carefully the terms which have been used, or which we ourselves are using, and examine their meaning and their implications. The habit of clarification is very much the disposition of the philosopher.
To philosophize is to seek clear notions it was with Plato. In language that is more technical philosophy is the critical analysis of concepts and the discovery of relations between them; it thus hopes to integrate our knowledge, to unify and interpret it.
So it comes about that logic is perhaps the most essential of concepts that would make philosophy a dreary discipline, ceasing however to be dreary when the ideas to be investigated are taken from some sphere of life of great and supreme interest.
Of the principles, which are in doubt, there are certain ones, which must be cleared up rather soon. I do not greatly fear the disruption of organized society, about which we hear so much, or the “downfall of our civilization”; but unless we can get some of our moral, social, and economic problems solved, there is grave danger of a rapid decline of our standard of living, if not of social degeneration.
Now it is not the purpose of philosophy to try to solve our social, economic, and political problems; but it is its purpose to think carefully and systematically about certain fundamental questions which concern ourselves, our conduct, and then we in which we live.
It is said that a transitional age, such as this, is full both of danger and of promise. It is believed that the issue is greater even than the dangers. For instance, acts about the threatened breakdown of science? It may well be that the fruits of science have been less than we expected, as regards the threatened breakdown of the principles of science, we find upon inquiry that there is nothing very serious about this. As far as those sciences are concerned with things, which directly relate to human needs and human happiness, their principles remain unshaken. It is hardly necessary to state this evident truth jwt philosophy For CSS.
Science and its Field
What has happened is this: The whole edifice of the physical sciences, as we have been accustomed to studying it, is now found to be part of a larger world of which we had no previous conception. The field of science has been so tremendously enlarged that we are a little dizzy at present. We have to get some new bearings and accustom ourselves to wider horizons. The theory of relativity, the quantum theory, the new Principle of Uncertainty, the discovery that physical laws, as well as social laws, are more or less statistical in character, the fact that we cannot predict how individuals will behave even individual atoms and electrons all of these are new discoveries, somewhat startling, and most of them are hard to understand jwt philosophy For CSS.
Summary jwt philosophy For CSS
However, we surmise that the meaning of it is that we are not so much hemmed in by the
unrelenting walls of a mechanistic universe as nineteenth-century science taught us. Perhaps there are possibilities in our world that we have not suspected – it might even have a place for freedom. Possibly, we have been studying physics and chemistry too much, biology, and psychology to little. It may be that biology is not just a branch of physics – nor is psychology a branch of biology.
The mathematicians also are doing strange things. They appear to be able to fathom depths not revealed by physical measurements and instruments of precision. Equations seem suddenly to have acquired unsuspected possibilities.
Thus, our new world is full of promise and rich in possibilities; but in respect to human relations it is a period of great confusion. Evidently, it is a time for reflective thinking – and this is just what philosophy is jwt philosophy For CSS.